Don’t Foul Out of the Game!

10 Take Home Tips for Keeping Officials Healthy & On the Court

IAABO Fall Seminar
September 11, 2010
Michelle Futrell, MA, ATC, SCAT
Sr. Instructor/Clinical Coordinator
Athletic Training Education Program
College of Charleston
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

#10 Manage Instead of Ignore Injuries

  • Ask for Help Sooner Rather than Later
  • Befriend a local Athletic Trainer
  • Ice, Heat & Advil are not the only treatment options
  • Keep a treatment log (Evaluation/Diagnosis & Treatment Administered)

See Handout of Common Symptoms and Treatments

Take advantage of the Ask the Athletic Trainer feature in the Members Only section of the IAABO website.

#9 Take Advantage of Off-Days

  • Cardio workout followed by flexibility to maintain fitness
  • Resistance training to maintain strength & endurance
  • Treatments for any injuries
  • Rest is NOT Optional
  • Minimum 1 day off/week
  • Ideally 48 hrs b/t strenuous exercise bouts
  • Be nice to your body… You only get one and once you hit 21 it’s all downhill….

#8 Establish a Game Day Routine

Schedule Everything…Build schedule around Game Time

–Pre-Game Meetings
–On Court
–Post Game Activities

Routines are easily manageable, habit forming & comfortable

#7 Preparation is Pivotal


  • Don’t Play Catch Up…
  • Maintain baseline conditioning levels in off-season
  • Train for longer distances/time periods than required
  • Know your Target Heart Rate Zone and train in that zone

(See cardio handout to calculate your personal THR)

  • 8-12 weeks Pre-Season program to get into “Game Shape”
  • Incorporate intervals to train bursts of speed

Ex: Jog 50 sec/ “Sprint” 10 sec
Jog 40 sec/ ”Sprint” 20 sec
”Sprint”=fastest pace required during a game situation

Know your personal fitness levels compared to normative data for age group

–Cardiovascular Fitness


–Muscular Strength & Endurance

–Body Composition

You can do this at home:

See the Summer 2010 Issue of Sportorials for directions and recommendations on assessing personal fitness.

#6 Don’t Stop Drinking:Hydration is a Continual Process

  • Monitor Hydration Status
  • Don’t start dehydrated
  • Methods of Determining Hydration Status:

W: Weight Loss (<2% loss of body wt. may impair function)

U: Urine Color (clear to color of weak lemondade)

T: Thirst

What to Drink?

  • Water, Water, Water
  • 6% Carbohydrate solution (i.e. Gatorade, Powerade, etc.) for activities that last longer than 45-50 minutes
  • Late in Game (brain may need some sugar) Hydration Plan
  • 17-20 oz: 2-3 hrs before exercise
  • 7-10 oz: 20 min before exercise
  • Max amt tolerated during exercise (every 10-20 min)
  • After activity replenish fluid lost

#5 Every Meal is the Pre-Game Meal

  • Nutrition is Cumulative
  • Pre-game meal cannot correct existing nutritional deficiencies
  • Maximizes storage of carbohydrates (primary energy source) and provides glucose (brain’s only energy source) for absorption during exercise.


  • 300-1000 total calories
  • Timing Based on Size of Meal:
  • 1000+ cal (Big meal): meal completed 4hrs before game time
  • 800-900 cal (Moderate Meal): meal completed 3 hrs before game time
  • 400-600 cal (Light Meal): meal completed 2 hrs before game time
  • <300 cal (snack): completed at least 1 hr before game time
  • 150-300g of carbs

–3-5g of carbohydrates/kg of body wt.

To Calculate the amount of carbohydrates needed in your personal pre-game meal:

–Convert body wt to kg: Weight in pounds/2.2= Wt in Kg
_________lbs /2.2= ________kg *3= _______grams of carbohydrates to
________kg*5=________grams of carbohydrates

  • Minimal amts of protein
  • Little Fat or Fiber
  • Comfort Foods
  • Not a good time to try something new

#4 Be Kind to Your Body: Don’t Blow Off Warm-Ups & Cool-Downs


  • Prepare body systems for upcoming exercise
  • 5-10 min
  • Whole body exercises
  • Break a sweat
  • Should include dynamic stretching
  • No evidence to suggest static stretching is very effective here Cool-Down

    Gradual return to resting state

Active more effective

Enhances lactic acid removal

Minimizes residual soreness

5-15 min

Should include static stretching

#3 Stretching is an Official’s Best Friend

  • Poor flexibility results in decreased performance and may contribute to both acute and overuse injuries
  • Remember, flexibility decreases with age To Improve Flexibility:
  • ~10 min of stretching post activity
  • Focus on muscles used and deficits
  • Static Stretches: Hold at tension point for 20-30 secs
  • May take 3-4 weeks to see significant improvement

#2 Identify Post-Game Priorities

  • Choices made in this area may have the biggest impact on recovery
  • Recovery Nutrition
  • Post-game Meeting/Review Game Tape
  • Flexibility
  • Treatments
  • Travel
  • Recovery Nutrition

–Replenish glycogen stores

  • Within 15-30 min

– 1g of carbohydrate/kg of body mass (~50-100g) [Wt in lbs/2.2=Wt in kg]

– Foods w/high glycemic index are fine and some protein

– Ex: Gatorade (20 oz=35g), Skim Chocolate Milk (27 g) Granola Bar (25g), Gummi Bears (26g)

  • Within 2-3 hrs eat a high carbohydrate meal with some lean protein (4:1 carb:protein ratio) – 80% carbs; 20% protein
  • OR…50-75g of carbs every 2 hrs until reach 500-700g
  • Still takes almost 20 hrs to replenish (enhanced by inactivity)

#1 It’s All About Choices

Reference List:

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Leicht, AS: “Cardiovascular stress on an elite basketball referee during national competition”, Br J Sports

Med. 38:10, 2004.

Loncar M, Dezman B, Licen S: “Tracking Two and Three Officials With A Computer”, FIBA Assist

Magazine, 8:2004.

Maresh CM, Gabaree-Boulant, CL, Armstrong LE, Judelson DA, Hoffman JR, Castellani JW, Kenefick

RW, Bergeron MF, Casa DJ: “Effect of hydration status on thirst, drinking, and related hormonal

responses during low-intensity exercise in the heat”, J Appl Physiol 97:39-44, 2004.

McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL: Sports & Exercise NUTRITION, 2ND Ed, 200, Lippincott, Williams &


McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL: Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance, 5th

Ed, 2001, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins

Wardlaw, GM, Smith, AM: Contemporary Nutrition, 6th Ed, 2006 McGraw Hill